Enhancing machining efficiency of Ti-6Al-4V through multi-axial ultrasonic vibration-assisted machining and hybrid nanofluid minimum quantity lubrication



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Journal of Manufacturing Processes


Ti-6Al-4V offers a balance of good strength with lightweight properties. Yet, Ti-6Al-4V poses machining challenges, including low thermal conductivity, chemical adhesion to cutting tools, and chip removal difficulties. To improve machining efficiency, Ultrasonic Vibration-Assisted Machining (UVAM) has emerged as a promising approach. UVAM has demonstrated reduced tool wear, cutting forces, and improved surface quality compared to Conventional Machining (CM). Additionally, Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) methods offer sustainable coolant alternatives, with recent research focusing on Nanofluid-MQL (NMQL) and Hybrid Nanofluid-MQL (HNMQL) for enhanced performance. Although there exists a body of literature showcasing the promising effects of UVAM and MQL methods individually, comprehensive investigations into the synergistic effects of these methodologies remain limited. This study addresses these critical research gaps by conducting a systematic examination of combined application of multi-axial UVAM and HNMQL. Specifically, it delves into the comparison of different vibration directions within UVAM, evaluates the effectiveness of UVAM when combined with cutting fluids incorporating Al2O3 and CuO nanoparticles in NMQLs and HNMQLs, and contrasts these novel approaches with conventional machining methods. The study unfolds in three distinct stages. The first stage examines the ultrasonic cutting mechanism and its combined application with the MQL technique. In the second stage, the study investigates the physical properties of the cutting fluids, including contact angle and surface tension. The final stage encompasses slot milling operations, where an array of parameters such as cutting forces, surface roughness, surface topography, surface texture, and the occurrence of burr formations are rigorously analyzed. The results demonstrate that the combination of multi-axial UVAM with HNMQL yields substantial advantages over traditional machining methods. Notably, it leads to a remarkable reduction in cutting forces (up to 37.6 %) and surface roughness (up to 37.4 %). Additionally, this combination engenders the production of highly homogeneous and uniform surface textures, characterized by minimal surface defects and a significantly diminished occurrence of burr formations. These findings underscore the potential of multi-axial UVAM combined with HNMQL as a promising approach in enhancing the machining of Ti-6Al-4V, thus offering a pathway to enhance the efficiency and precision of aerospace component manufacturing processes.


Published by Journal of Manufacturing Processes;; Ramazan Hakkı Namlu, Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Atılım University, Ankara, Turkey, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Atılım University, Ankara, Turkey; Bahram Lotfi, Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Atılım University, Ankara, Turkey; S. Engin Kılıç, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Atılım University, Ankara, Turkey.


Ti-6Al-4V, Ultrasonic vibration-assisted machining, Nanofluid minimum quantity lubrication, Cutting force, Surface quality, Burr formations