Analysis of Space Efficiency in High-Rise Timber Residential Towers


High-rise timber residential towers (≥eight-stories) represent a burgeoning and auspicious sector, predominantly due to their capability to provide significant ecological and financial advantages throughout their lifecycle. Like numerous other building types, spatial optimization in high-rise timber residential structures stands as a pivotal design factor essential for project viability. Presently, there exists no comprehensive investigation on space efficiency in such towers. This study analyzed data from 51 case studies to enhance understanding of the design considerations influencing space efficiency in high-rise timber residential towers. Key findings included (1) the average space efficiency within the examined cases was recorded at 83%, exhibiting variances ranging from 70% to 93% across different cases, (2) the average percentage of core area to gross floor area (GFA) was calculated at 10%, demonstrating fluctuations within the range of 4% to 21% across diverse scenarios, and (3) no notable distinction was observed in the effect of various core planning strategies on spatial efficiency when properly designed, and similar conclusions were drawn regarding building forms and structural materials. This research will aid in formulating design guidelines tailored for various stakeholders such as architectural designers involved in high-rise residential timber building developments. Keywords: space efficiency; timber; high rise; residential building; gross floor area (GFA); net floor area (NFA)


Open Access; Applied Sciences;; Hüseyin Emre Ilgın, School of Architecture, Faculty of Built Environment, Tampere University, P.O. Box 600, FI-33014 Tampere, Finland,; Özlem Nur Aslantamer, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design, Faculty of Art, Design and Architecture, Atılım University, Ankara 06830, Turkey,


space efficiency, timber, high rise, residential building, gross floor area (GFA), net floor area (NFA)